With evidence invalidating what is validating identity
They are sometimes criticized as a legal technicality, but are an important part of the system for achieving a just result.
Perhaps the most important of the rules of evidence is that, in general, hearsay testimony is inadmissible (although there are many exceptions to this rule).
These include the military tribunals in the United States and tribunals used in Australia to try health professionals.
In every jurisdiction based on the English common law tradition, evidence must conform to a number of rules and restrictions to be admissible.
This authentication requirement has import primarily in jury trials.James Bradley Thayer reported in 1898 that even English lawyers were surprised by the complexity of American evidence law, such as its reliance on exceptions to preserve evidentiary objections for appeal.Some legal experts, notably Stanford legal historian Lawrence Friedman, have argued that the complexity of American evidence law arises from two factors: (1) the right of American defendants to have findings of fact made by a jury in practically all criminal cases as well as many civil cases; and (2) the widespread consensus that tight limitations on the admissibility of evidence are necessary to prevent a jury of untrained laypersons from being swayed by irrelevant distractions.The trier of fact is a judge in bench trials, or the jury in any cases involving a jury.The law of evidence is also concerned with the quantum (amount), quality, and type of proof needed to prevail in litigation.